From the Countryside to the City

38f. Artistic and Literary Trends

Snap the Whip, 1872
Butler Institute of American Art
Winslow Homer drew several versions of "Snap the Whip," capturing school children at play in 1872 rural America.

Like the American economy, American art and literature flourished during the Gilded Age. The new millionaires desired greatly to furnish their mansions with beautiful things. Consequently, patronage for the American arts was at a higher level than any previous era. Painters depicted a realistic look at the glories and hardships of this new age. Writers used their pens to illustrate life at its best and its worst. The net result was an American Renaissance香蕉成人视频app of arts and letters.

Painting the Gilded Age

Many wealthy Americans yearned to have their image captured for posterity by having their portraits painted. James McNeill Whistler and John Singer Sargent were the most sought after portrait artists of the time. Lured by the idea of working among European masters, both moved to England. Their works endure as among the finest in the genre. Another expatriate American was the impressionist Mary Cassatt, who moved to Paris to work with the masters Monet and Renoir香蕉成人视频app. Beyond any artist of the age, she captured women and children at their tender best.

Perhaps the most famous of the postwar American painters was Winslow Homer. Homer gained fame during the Civil War for his realistic illustrations of Union soldiers, which often graced the covers of Harper's Weekly magazine. After the war he became a serious painter. Life in the American countryside was made real to those who flocked to the cities. His later years were marked with a fascination of the New England coast. Probably no American painter captured the majesty and power of the sea like Homer.

At the same time, Philadelphian Thomas Eakins illustrated local behaviors, including a series depicting crew races on the Schuylkill River. His most controversial work, The Gross Clinic, depicted a live medical operation.


In literature, the dominant figure of the age was Mark Twain. Born Samuel Langhorne Clemens, Twain spurned the stodgy New England writing style of the time and brought an added touch of realism by writing in the local color and style of the American Mississippi. Huckleberry Finn and Tom Sawyer became genuine American folk heroes to his many readers.

Kate Chopin was largely unknown at the time, but her novel The Awakening became a manifesto for future feminists. Stephen Crane portrayed the horrors of the Civil War with his poignant The Red Badge of Courage in 1895. Henry James struggled with the values of the Victorian Age by focusing his attention on women. His works Daisy Miller and Portrait of a Lady hinted at the tension lying beneath Victorian morality. The horrors of city life were grimly depicted in Theodore Dreiser's Sister Carrie香蕉成人视频app, whose representation of a poor working girl offended many a reader.

Postwar poets were prolific. Most notable were Walt Whitman for his Leaves of Grass collection and Emily Dickinson, whose many poems were published after her death.

In the Home

The visual arts flowered as well. The market for interior design was booming. Louis Comfort Tiffany specialized in stained glass. He combined glorious colors of glass with shells and stones to create beautiful works for fine homes. He was even commissioned to improve the interior of the White House. Candace Wheeler香蕉成人视频app pioneered work in tapestry weaving. Wealthy Americans bought these items with a fever, and lavished their homes with marble floors and decorative chandeliers. The American Renaissance was in full swing.

On the Web

A look at vaudeville, burlesque, minstrel shows, and other forms of popular entertainment, through artifacts in the collections of the Library of Congress. You'll find lots of digital images on the several pages of this website.

This new site from the University of Virginia features dozens of essays on Emily Dickinson, Walt Whitman, and their place in American culture. Many are illustrated.

What a treat! Click on the thumbnails of these five outstanding paintings by Whistler, and you'll get a larger version with excellent detail. There's also an essay on Whistler's role in American art.

You'd never guess it from the front page, but this website created by a University of Virginia professor is one of the most extraordinary out there. The illustrated e-texts and background info of five of Mark Twain's major works would be enough, but you can move on to three excellent illustrated essays on the creation of the "Mark Twain" identity, the marketing of the man and the stories, and Mark Twain on Stage — which includes a voice recording. Still, Professor Railton is not finished. He has created a richly illustrated online game which should be required playing!

The National Gallery of Art has 119 works by Mary Cassatt, and most of them are digitized and available online. This page is linked to a listing of all Cassatt's works in the Gallery's permanent collection. Click on each title to bring up high-quality images and pages of information about the art.

Mary Cassat was one of the few American artists active in the 19th-century French avant-garde. Check out this page for a quick summary of her life and work.

The National Gallery of Art showcases 15 of Winslow Homer's watercolors in this multi-page website. Oustanding image quality on the thumbnails, even better on the large images which are just a click away.
I regret very much that I have painted a picture that requires any description. -Winslow Homer when asked for a few descriptive lines about The Gulf Stream.
Here is a chance to listen to original skits and songs from the variety stage, including the Trail of the Lonesome Pine (1913) and the Arkansas Traveler, complete with sound effects, as recorded in 1922.

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